i. Carrot 128 ii. Radish 130 iii. Beetroot 132 iv. Potato 134 v. Sweetpotato 138 vi. Tapioca 139 vii. Elephant Foot Yam 143 viii. Taro 145 ix. Dioscorea 146 x. Chinease Potato 147 6. Chapter D - Bulb Vegetables 149 i. Multiplier Onion - Small Onion 149 ii. Bellary Onion - Big Onion 151 7. Chapter E - Leafy Vegetables 156 i. Amaranthus. , Pusa Hybrid-2, Pusa Hybrid-4, Arka Vardan, Hisar Lalit, TNAU Tomato Hybrid Co3: Tomato leaf curl virus: Arka Ananya, Kashi Vishesh, Kashi Amrit, COTH 2, TNAU Tomato Hybrid Co3: Bacterial wilt: Arka Ananya, Arka Abhijit, Arka Abha, Arka Alo
Spraying of GA 3 at 20 ppm at berry diameter of 8-10 mm for Grapes cv. Red Globe increased the bunch weight (783.04 g), yield per vine (17.23 kg) and yield per hectare (41.50 t) and the highest BC ratio of 4.89 as against 2.57 in control; Allowing fruiting in 50% of the canes and vegetative growth in remaining 50% of the canes resulted in the highest cumulative yield of 38.20 kg / vine against. Initial symptoms of infection are the formation of small, circular, water-soaked spots on leaves, stems, petioles and/or peduncles; the lesions mature to have white to brown centers surrounded by a brown to red or purple border; as the lesions expand, they may develop a water-soaked outer edge and dark outer ring which gives the lesions a concentric appearance; mature lesions are brittle and. Pests of National Significance Insect and mite pests Borers. Early shoot borer: Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Pink borer: Sesamia inferens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Top shoot borer: Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Root borer: Emmalocera depressella (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Internode borer: Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur. Key to Cucurbit Pests. Pickleworms (on most cucurbits) and squash vine borers (on squash) can cause serious damage to field-grown cucurbits. In the greenhouse, cucumbers are likely to be infested with aphids, spider mites, leafminers, and cucumber beetles, which are common outdoors and in greenhouses, are vectors of the bacterial wilt organism.
on pest-defender dynamics, innate abilities of plant to compensate for the dam-ages caused by the pests and the influence of abiotic factors on pest buildup. In addition, Ecological Engineering for pest management - a new paradigm to en-hance the natural enemies of pests in an agro-ecosystem is being considered as an important strategy The pests are budworm (Noorda moringae), Hairy caterpillar (Eupterote mollifera), and pod fly (Gitona distigma); bark caterpillar (Indarbela tetraonis) and leaf caterpillar (Noorda blitealis) are pests of economic impact because they cause major agricultural losses. Conditions for Moringa cultivatio Introduction to Cauliflower pests and diseases. If you are planning for a commercial Cauliflower farming, you must be aware of common pests and diseases of the crop.Cauliflower is an important winter vegetable grown in India. Cauliflower is a herbaceous biennial or annual vegetable plant in the family Brassicaceae has grown for its edible head
Pests and diseases that affect pineapple crops in Queenslan Millets 29.5 Carrot 47.5 Soybean 30.5 Cotton 72.5 Gram 11.6 Onion 68.0 Pea 32.9 Potato 20.1 • Weeds compete with crops for water soil, nutrients, light, and space, and thus reduce the crop yields. An estimate shows that weeds can deprive the crops 47% N, 42% P, 50% K, 39% Ca and 24% Mg of their nutrient uptake Pests of Major Significance Insect Pests. Pollu beetle: Lanka ramakrishnae (Longitarsus nigripennis) Mots.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Top shoot borer: Cydia hemidoxa Meyr.(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Leaf gall thrips: Liothrips karnyi Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Phaleothripidae) Mussel scale insects: Lepidosaphes piperis Gr.; Aspidiotus destructor Sign.. (Hemiptera: D
AESA BASED IPM PACKAGE FOR CUSTARD APPLE Custard apple plant description: Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) can be called as a delicacy of dry region due to its very sweet delicate flesh. It is a deciduous or semi deciduous tall woody shrub of about 5-6 meter Coragen ® insect control powered by Rynaxypyr ® active does more to optimize the yields and quality of your crops by achieving consistent and long-lasting control of key pests. It stops insect feeding within minutes of application and provides up to three weeks of residual control when used at the high label rate against a broad spectrum of Lepidopteran pests including armyworm, corn earworm.
Introduction to Moringa or Drumstick pests and diseases. Drumstick is also called moringa, drumstick tree (from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seedpods), horseradish tree, ben oil tree, or benzoil tree. Drumstick is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree, and widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas where its young seed pods and leaves are used as a vegetable Key to Okra Pests. Okra has few noticeable pests. Pods curled or with wart-like protrusions commonly indicate earlier feeding damage by stink bugs and / or leaffooted bugs. Corn earworms also infest pods occasionally. Damage to the foliage is normally unimportant, unless Japanese beetle populations are unusually high
Mango pests and their control Hopper pests of the Mango tree. Of all the Mango pests, hoppers are mainly considered as the most serious and widespread pest throughout the country. A large number of nymphs and adult insects puncture and suck the sap of tender parts, thereby reducing the vigor of the Mango plants Common Pests and Diseases for Onions. Onions don't tend to have a lot of pest and disease problems, but the ones they have can cause a lot of damage. Gophers and other rodents love to dig in onion beds and eat the bulbs, and the best way to keep them away is to use wire animal traps or construct sturdy garden fences around your vegetables This pest is a polyphagous species which attack a large number of legumes, flowers, grape vines, etc. It causes considerable damage in the legume crops. It pierces the leaves and it digs deep cavities inside the small blossoms. This pest is very sensitive to temperatures and humidity. Prevention: Chemical treatments, using Optimol or Agrosa TNAU, Tamil Nadu . Index SN Lecture Page 1 Importance of post harvest technology of insects and other organisms. Micro-organisms attack fresh produce easily and spread quickly, because the carrots capsicum, green chilli and tomatoes by 15, 14, 13, 8 and 15 clays as against 5, 7, 8, 4 and 7 days in control respectively, under ambient.
Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus)-Stem Rots. Cause Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, a soilborne fungus that infects plant roots or wounded cuttings. It survives in the soil as thick-walled, dormant chlamydospores, and on wooden benches used for plant production in the greenhouse. Chlamydospores germinate in response to exudates from nearby. Insects pests of maize 1. INSECT PESTS OF MAIZE R. Regmi Assistant Professor Department of entomology 2. Major insect pests • Maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) • White Grub, Phyllophaga rugosa/Holotrichia spp./Anomala dimidiate (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) • Rice Ear- cutting caterpillar, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) • Flower Beetle, Chiloloba acuta. Pest and Diseases in Pumpkin Farming. Pumpkins are very prone to pests and diseases, and numbers of pest and diseases attacks on its crop. It is essential to prevent them to obtain a good quality and high yield from pumpkin cultivation. Crop rotation is the best way to minimize pests and diseases I. Pests A. Pests of National Significance 1. Insect and mite pests 2. Diseases 3. Nematodes 4. Weeds 5. Rodents B. Pests of Regional Significance 1. Insect pests 2. Diseases II. Agro-ecosystem analysis (AESA) based integrated pest management (IPM) A. AESA B. Field scouting C. Yellow pan water trap/sticky traps D. Light traps E. Nematode. In response to the threat of severe damage and economic loss by pests and diseases in shallot, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded project IPM—CRSP (Integrated Pest Management— Collaborative Research Support Program), in which Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), India is a collaborator, has developed an.
TNAU Tamil Nadu . Index SN Name Page No 1 Importance, area, production and productivity of major cereals, pulses, oilseeds, sugar crops, medicinal and aromatics and forage crops 5-13 2 WHEAT TRITICUM SP 14-25 3 BARLEY Hordeum vulgare 26-31 4 TRITICALE 32-3 With any pest problem, try non-toxic methods initially. A soapy solution of water and dish soap can clog up most pests' breathing areas and kill a large amount of the population. Resort to target pesticides if you can identify the insect to prevent killing beneficial plants. Overall, treat your jasmine like a queen so it is healthy and able. Ginger. Ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.) (Family: Zingiberaceae) is an herbaceous perennial, the rhizomes of which are used as a spice. India is a leading producer of ginger in the world and during 2012 - 13 the country produced 7.45 lakh tonnes of the spice from an area of 157839 hectares. Ginger is cultivated in most of the states in India The variety is tolerant towards pests and diseases. TNAU Hybrid Chilli Co1. Developed by TNAU, Coimbatore the fruits are 12 cm long. The raw fruits are light green in color and tapering at the tip. Moderately resistant to fruit rot. Yields 11 tonnes per acre of green chilli and 2 tonnes of dry pods per acre Pest management in sunflower plants involves prevention. Keeping the area free of weeds and debris can help. Damage can also be reduced by treating the area before sunflower pests become well established. Later planting, such as in June or July, may also help alleviate any problems
Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, is an herbaceous annual or biennial vegetable plant in the family Brassicaceae grown for its edible head. The head is actually a mass of abortive flowers (flowers which are unable to produce fruit or seed as they possess only female reproductive organs; the male organs are either underdeveloped or totally lacking) Strategies to Enhance Beneficials One of the most powerful and long-lasting ways to minimize economic damage from pests is to boost populations of existing or naturally occurring beneficial organisms by supplying them with appropriate habitat and alternative food sources. Beneficial organisms such as predators, parasites and pest-sickening pathogens are found far more frequently on. Jasmine flowers bear the intoxicating fragrance familiar to us from perfumes and finely scented toiletries. The plants have an exotic appeal with starry white flowers and shiny leaves. The plants may be grown outdoors or indoors and are fairly easy to grow. However, jasmine plant problems do exist and it is important to be able to identify them Radish, Raphanus sativus, is an herbaceous annual or biennial plant in the family Brassicaceae, grown for its edible taproot. The radish plant has a short hairy stem and a rosette (ground level horizontal and circular leaves) of oblong shaped leaves which measure 5-30 cm (2-12 in) in length. The top leaves of the plant are smaller and lance. Adding calcium to your garden through bone meal and other forms can give you better tomato, zucchini, and pepper yields by preventing blossom end rot. This critical mineral also promotes new growth in roots and stems to keep your plants healthy for the full growing season. 3. May Contain Nitrogen
Control of Lixini), a major pest of Amaranthus caudatus L. Munis Brown Soft Scale in Central Valley. Citrograph, Entomology & Zoology, 4(2): 510-518. 60(11): 402-403.  Kagali, R. N. 2014. An integrated pest management approach of amaranth insect pests in Buuri District, Meru County, Kenya Management of the problems which arises during the farming like; disease pest occurrence, soil, Agro-materials also falls under the successive Agriculture work. Regarding to the emerging context for commercialization, raising income and upliftmen Growing a crop on which the nematode pest can't reproduce is a good way to control some nematodes. Example. The sugarbeet cyst nematode attacks only a limited number of crops including cole crops (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower) and related crops and weeds. 9
How To Control Aphids Organically. Aphids, family name Aphididae, are a common pest to gardeners, commercial growers and greenhouses due to their wide species diversity and rapid reproductive cycle.There are some 1,351 species of aphids currently recorded in the US and Canada, of which about 80 species are pests of food crops and ornamental plants Integrated control of insects with carrots, the carrot fly (Psila rosae) and the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum) as crop-pest model. Danish Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 87:303-355. Esbjerg P, Nielsen JK, Philipsen H, Zethner O, Ogard L, 1986. Soil moisture as mortality factor for cutworms, Agrotis segetum Schiff This virus is spread from plant to plant by thrips insects. Infected leaves develop necrotic spots, often with concentric rings of brown tissue. If plants are infected early some whole stems may turn brown and die. Infected tubers develop an internal brown discoloration. Symptoms vary by time of infection, strain of the virus and cultivar of. Carrot . 5-9% (d) Causes of post-harvest losses High post-harvest losses are caused by the invasion of fungi, bacteria, insects and other organisms. Micro-organisms attack fresh produce easily and spread quickly, because the produce does not have much of a natural defense mechanism and has plenty of nutrients and moisture to support.
Pest and Diseases (फसलों के कीट एवं रोग), Vegetables (सब्जियाँ) Cucurbits crops include- Pumpkin, Cucumbers, Watermelon, Muskmelon and Squash/Watermelon.A wide range of cucurbit pests can affect these plants at different growth stages eCourses. Download Winrar Software. B. Sc. (Horticulture) The courseware material is prepared as per ICAR approved syllabus for the benefit of. under-graduate students already enrolled in Indian Agricultural Universities. Select to Download Desired e-Course. * 41 Courses Available. S.No
Dear Reader, The Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group is proud to offer you the 19th edition of the Vegetable Crop Handbook for the Southeastern United States Integrated pest management, or IPM, is a process you can use to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment. IPM can be used to manage all kinds of pests anywhere-in urban, agricultural, and wildland or natural areas Instructor: Dr. Jeremy S. Cowan WSU Spokane County Extension 222 N. Havana St Spokane, WA 99202 Phone: 509.477.2145 Fax: 509.477.2087 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction - Worldwide, the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis is amongst most dreadful pests of banana. Host plant resistance is a powerful tool to tackle the nematode menace 43.2 Controlled and Modified atmospheres for fruits and vegetables. 43.2.1 Principle. The principle behind controlled and modified atmosphere technologies is to reduce the rate of respiration, reduce microbial growth, and retard enzymatic spoilage by changing the gaseous environment surrounding the food product
insects, and by nematodes. Viruses The word 'virus' means poison or the poisonous element by which infection is communicated. The virus can be defined as a transmissible parasite whose nucleic acid genome is less than 3 x 108 daltons in mass and that need ribosomes and other components of their host cells for multiplication (Gibbs and Harrison. If so, many insects fall under this category. However, insects present in the soil during their destructive stage and cause widespread damage to agricultural crops are generally known as soil arthropod pests. The dipterous larvae commonly known as root maggots, eg. the seed corn, onion, cabbage, sugar beet and carrot fly; coleopterous larva 22 International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences www.ijagbio.com P-ISSN: 2305-6622 E-ISSN: 2306-3599 email@example.com RESEARCH ARTICLE Studies on the Invertebrate Fauna Associated With Moringa Oleifera (Lam), (Moringaceae) During the Rainy Season in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeri variety adoption, losses due to insects and diseases, low productivity in poor soils, tolerance to stress associated with heat and drought, consumer preferences, and storage of harvested products. As pressure on agricultural land increases, improved productivity of these crops will be needed
The tobacco caterpillar,S. litura, is one of the most important insect pests of agricultural crops in the Asian tropics. It is widely distributed throughout tropical and temperate Asia, Australasia and the Pacific Islands (Feakin, 1973; Kranz et al., 1977).Records of S. litura having limited distribution in (or being eradicated from) Germany, Russian Federation, Russian Far East, the UK and. 8 Root crops- carrot, radish, turnip and beet root; 1 Dr. Akhilesh 9 Leafy vegetables- amaranthus, palak; 1 Dr. Akhilesh 10 Rare vegetables- asparagus, lettuce, parsley, celery. 1 Dr. Akhilesh 11 Perennial vegetables- drumstick, coccinia and curry leaf. 1 Dr. Akhilesh 12 Importance of ornamental gardens. 2 Dr. Desh Ra
Identification of the pest: Egg: Creamy white spherical eggs laid in batches in between leaf sheaths and stem of the plant. Larva: Pinkish brown with a reddish brown head. Pupa: Brown, obtect pupa, pupates inside the stem. Adult: Straw coloured moth with forewings having three black spots and a faint brown mid-stripe with white hindwings The main constraint to potato farming in India are: It is vulnerable to pests and diseases hence implying a high risk of failure, growing potatoes requires substantial capital and the crop needs intensive care and attention. However, a proper insect pest management program will minimise losses to potato crop. 1
This type of root has a wide top and tapering conical ends. Carrot is a common example of a conical root system. Fusiform root: These roots have a wider middle section and tapering top and bottom ends. You can think of it as a two-sided fusion of conical roots. A common example of the fusiform root is Radish Selection of Seed: Select healthy and pure seed of high yielding varieties, free from pests and diseases. The tubers showing any surface borne disease like scab, wart, nematode infection or effect of rots should be sorted out. It is advisable to use certified seed for good yields.It is advisable to replace the seed stock in every 3-4 years as. Insects. Quails love to eat various types of insects as an extra source of protein. Eating insects give them more growing power when they hatch. As a result newly hatched quail's diet is different from that of adult quails. Quail chicks almost exclusively depend on insects for the first few weeks of their live
Millets 29.5 Carrot 47.5 Soybean 30.5 Cotton 72.5 Gram 11.6 Onion 68.0 Pea 32.9 Potato 20.1 Weeds compete with crops for water soil, nutrients, light, and space, and thus reduce the crop yields. An estimate shows that weeds can deprive the crops 47% N, 42% P, 50% K, 39% Ca and 24% Mg of their nutrient uptake The insects sting and suck the cell juice, provoking a stress to the plant. In case of a severe attack the plant dies. Control measures: Treatments with Decis Mega 50 EC, Mospilan 20 SG, Actara, Confidor Energy; Utilisation of the attracting traps. Greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Adults and larvae colonise leaves and sprouts A rotation consisting of a succession of vegetables, such as onions, carrots, melons, potatoes, and beetroot, while being highly effective against invertebrates and diseases (as none of the crops have pests in common), from a weed control perspective, is a poor rotation as all the crops are annuals, and so, annual weed populations will increase. Cercospora leaf spot or brown eyespot of coffee. Infested leaf has small yellow eye-like spots that slowly expand up to 5mm in size. Later, the outer portion of the spot is brown while the center becomes gray-white. Infested cherry is dried, blackened, and has almost circular scar on the pulp which makes de-pulping difficult
FUNGAL PATHOGENS FUNGAL PATHOGENS SSNAIK M.Sc.Scholar TNAU,COIMBATORE 3. What is microbial control ? 4. MICROBIAL CONTROL Microbial control refers to the exploitation of diseases causing organisms to reduce the population of insect pests below the economic injury level Microorganisms 5 The northern root-knot nematode, M. hapla is a key pest of carrots in India (Devrajan et al., 2003; Seenivasan, 2017b). It is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode. The second-stage infective juveniles (J2) penetrate through growing tips of roots and forms several multinucleate giant cells in vascular tissues 4Horticultural Research Station (TNAU), Ooty, The Nilgiris Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India An extensive survey on pests and pesticides usage pattern on exotic vegetables was conducted among the farmers in Kotagiri block, Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu during 2017 . A list of pests o
Four species of mites attack wheat in Colorado. The wheat curl mite eggs, immature stages and adults are found in the winter on wheat and nearby perennial grasses. Brown wheat mite summers in the soil as a white egg. In the fall, eggs hatch after a 10-day incubation. Banks grass mites produce heavy webbing to protect colonies of eggs and adults ravaged by many insect pests right from germination of seeds to harvest of fruits. It is attacked by several types of insect pest viz., defoliators, sap feeders, borers and soil inhabiting insects. Among them, Jassid, Amrasca devastans (Cicadellidae; Hemiptera) is a major and dreaded insect pest that attacks the crop from sowing to till harvesting
Symptom: Yellowing of tips of leaflets in 2 or 3 leaves of the outermost whorl. Brown necrotic streaks run parallel to veins in unfolded leaves. The yellowing extends to the middle of the lamina. Tips of the chlorotic leaves dry up. In advanced stage all the leaves become yellow. Finally, the crown leaves fall off leaving of a bare trunk Management of the problems which arises during the farming like; disease pest occurrence, soil, Agro-materials also falls under the successive Agriculture work. Regarding to the emerging context for commercialization, raising income and upliftment on livelihood of farmers by technical enhancement in simple way, we feel very happy by the.
Carrot also recorded 2.17 x 10 8 spores/100 g and 0.24 g of biomass production and 1.27 x 10 8 spores/100 g was recorded in rice husk. However, V. lecanii pro-duced more and the least spores as well as biomass on jack seeds and sawdust, respectively (Table 1) The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is a medium-sized moth in the family Noctuidae, a family commonly referred to as owlet moths.Its common name comes from its preferred host plants and distinctive crawling behavior. Cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage, bok choy, and broccoli, are its main host plant; hence, the reference to cabbage in its common name Harvest. Harvest baby ginger about 4-6 months after sprouting, mature ginger is generally harvested when the plant dies back in the fall or winter. To harvest dig up the rhizomes. Ginger should be planted at a rate of 30 pounds per 100 feet of rows, and rows should be planted about 2-3 feet apart. That should allow a spacing of about 5″ per.
Pesticides help the producer to minimize the pest damages to crops and there by minimize the yield losses. This paper examines the economic and environmental impacts of plant protection measures in IPM and non-IPM cotton growing areas in the western zone of Tamil Nadu.Cobb-Douglas production function was utilized to analyze the resource-use efficiency in IPM cotton non-IPM cotton Insect-Pest and Their Management: Aphid: It is the main pest of oats. It causes considerable damage by sucking of cell sap. It results in distortion and mottling of leaves. Dimethoate 30EC @0.03% helps to prevent aphid attack. This fodder should not be fed to animals for at least 10-15 days after spraying
The botanical name of Safed musli is Chlorophytum borivilianum. Its roots are used for preparing various drugs. It is an annual herb having average height of 1-1.5ft. Flowers are star shaped, 2cm across and yellow or green in color. Fruits are greenish to yellow in color and mainly produce in July - December Stadler, E., & Buser, H. R. (1984) Oviposition stimulents for the carrot fly in the surface wax of the carrot leaves. In Proceeding of the 5th International symposium on insect-plant relationships, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp 403-404. Google Schola Onion (. Allium cepa. )-White Rot. Cause A fungus, Sclerotium cepivorum, that produces hardy sclerotia, which may survive in soil for 20 to 30 years. Only Allium spp. such as onion, leek, and shallot are attacked. Sclerotia can infect plants from 12 inches below the soil surface. One sclerotium can infect a group of 20 to 30 adjacent plants